The black dots on the windshield, sometimes referred to as a "dot matrix", is known in the auto industry as a frit. A good explanation of what these do is available in this Jalopnik article. Part of the function is to assist with the seal for the glass while the section behind the rearview mirror helps to block the sun in the gap between the two sun visors.
It is safe to mount your adhesive mount dash cam to this surface and it will not cause any electronic interference if you mount the tape on these dots. If you ever have to remove the adhesive from these dots, it will not damage the dots either as they are securely fused to the windshield in an oven. We love using these dots to hide the bulk of a dash cam as it reduces the amount of the camera that's visible from the outside. As long as the lens sticks past the dot matrix you will have no problems with the dash cam. Note that suction cup dashcams typically will not stick to the frit as the textured surface will not allow a perfect seal for the suction cup. Adhesive mounts can conform to the different textures.